Discovering and Testing New Drugs Flashcards

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  • Make sure you understand the information on each card. If something’s unclear, click the link to the revision notes at the bottom of the page for more details.

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3️⃣ Consistently Review and Practice:

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Note: We may include questions that have multiple correct answers. It’s useful to remember specific examples to understand these concepts better.

What are some examples of drugs that are made from plants and microorganisms?

Aspirin from willow trees (painkiller), Digitalis from foxglove plants (treats heart conditions), and Penicillin from Penicillium mould (antibiotic).

Why is rigorous testing important in drug development?

To ensure drugs are safe and effective, and to prevent issues like those caused by Thalidomide, which led to birth defects.

What are the three main factors considered when producing new drugs?

Toxicity (harmful side effects), Efficacy (effectiveness), and Dose (correct amount for minimum side effects).

What happens during preclinical testing?

Preclinical testing is done on cells and tissues, and then on whole animals to test the drug’s efficacy, toxicity and dose.

How are clinical trials conducted?

Clinical trials involve giving the drug to healthy volunteers in low doses to check safety, then to patients to find the optimal dose.

Trials can be single-blind or double-blind to eliminate bias.

What is the purpose of a placebo in clinical trials?

Placebos help compare and study the effectiveness of new drugs by observing patient responses without the active ingredient.

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