Evaluating Treatments for Coronary Heart Disease Flashcards

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What is cardiovascular disease?

Cardiovascular disease is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels.

What causes coronary heart disease (CHD)?

CHD is caused by layers of fatty material, mainly cholesterol, building up inside the coronary arteries, making them narrower and less elastic, reducing blood flow and oxygen to the heart.

How do stents help treat coronary heart disease?

Stents are expandable tubes placed inside arteries to hold them open, allowing blood to flow. A balloon is inflated to expand the stent, which remains in place after the balloon is removed.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using stents?

Advantages: quick and simple surgery, effective at reducing heart attack risk, and long-lasting.

Disadvantages: surgery risks (e.g., heart attacks and infections), potential blood clots, and serious bleeding.

How do statins work to reduce coronary heart disease risk?

Statins reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol by blocking a liver enzyme needed for cholesterol production, reducing fatty deposit buildup and CHD risk.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of statins?

Advantages: reduce LDL cholesterol, increase HDL cholesterol, and lower risk of CHD, strokes and heart attacks.

Disadvantages: must be taken regularly, potential side effects (e.g., muscle pain, headaches and kidney failure), not suitable for pregnant or breastfeeding women.

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