Mutation and Variation Flashcards

1️⃣ Familiarise yourself with the flashcards:

  • Look through all the flashcards to see what’s on both sides.
  • Make sure you understand the information on each card. If something’s unclear, click the link to the revision notes at the bottom of the page for more details.

2️⃣ Test yourself:

  • Look at the question or prompt on each card and try to remember the answer before flipping it over.
  • Check the answer and make a note of any cards you find challenging and need to go over more.

3️⃣ Consistently Review and Practice:

  • Use spaced repetition: spend more time on the cards you struggle with and go over them more often.
  • Regularly review all the flashcards to help you better understand and retain the information over time.

Note: We may include questions that have multiple correct answers. It’s useful to remember specific examples to understand these concepts better.

What is a mutation and how do they occur?

A mutation is a change in a gene or chromosome, occurring naturally and randomly, or due to environmental factors.

How do gene mutations cause variation?

Gene mutations can involve the addition, deletion or rearrangement of DNA bases, which can change the protein produced and affect the organism’s function.

What is natural selection?

Natural selection is the process in which organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring, passing their genes to future generations.

How did natural selection affect the peppered moth population during the Industrial Revolution?

Pollution darkened trees with soot, giving dark-coloured moths a camouflage advantage over pale moths. As a result, dark moths survived more and reproduced, eventually outnumbering the pale moths.

What is an example of a mutation causing a new phenotype?

Mutations rarely create new phenotypes, but if they do and the new phenotype is suited to the environment, it can lead to rapid changes in the species’ phenotype through natural selection.

What was the advantage of the dark-coloured moths during the Industrial Revolution?

The dark-coloured moths were better camouflaged against soot-darkened trees, making them less visible to predators and increasing their survival and reproduction rates.

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