Predicting Inheritance Flashcards

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Note: We may include questions that have multiple correct answers. It’s useful to remember specific examples to understand these concepts better.

How are genes inherited from parents?

Genes are inherited directly from our parents through the set of chromosomes we receive from each parent at conception.

What are alleles and how do they affect an individual’s characteristics?

Alleles are different variants of a gene.

We inherit two alleles for each gene, one from each parent, which work together to determine an individual’s phenotype (observable characteristics) and genotype (genetic makeup).

What is the difference between dominant and recessive alleles?

Dominant alleles (e.g., for brown eyes) will always override recessive alleles (e.g., for blue eyes). An individual with both a dominant and a recessive allele will show the dominant trait.

What is a Punnett square and what does it show?

A Punnett square is a genetic diagram that shows the possible combinations of alleles that offspring could inherit from their parents.

What is monohybrid inheritance?

Monohybrid inheritance is the inheritance of a single trait controlled by one gene, which can be investigated using Punnett squares.

What are family tree diagrams (pedigree charts) used for?

Family tree diagrams show the presence of phenotypes of a particular gene within a family over several generations and help work out the genotype of individuals and the probability of inheriting a genetic disorder.

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