Characteristics and Distribution of Cold Environments Flashcards

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What are the two main types of cold environments?

The two main types of cold environments are Polar and Tundra.

Where are Polar environments typically found?

Polar environments are found within the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle (66.5° to 90° north and south), including Antarctica, Greenland, Northern Russia and Canada.

How does the climate of Tundra environments differ from Polar environments?

Tundra environments have freezing temperatures most of the year, with an average between -12°C and -6°C, and can reach 10°C in summer.

Polar environments are colder, with long winters and temperatures reaching -40°C and below.

What kind of vegetation can be found in Polar and Tundra environments?

Polar environments have some plants like algae and moss, while Tundra environments support small plants such as grass, moss, lichen, and rapidly growing flowers.

What is the ‘Midnight Sun’ phenomenon in cold environments?

The ‘Midnight Sun’ is a phenomenon where the Sun remains visible for 24 hours a day during the summer in Polar environments, providing continuous daylight.

How do glaciers affect the local climate and environment?

Glaciers reflect sunlight, maintaining cooler temperatures in their vicinity. They act as freshwater reservoirs, slowly releasing water through melting, which is vital for downstream ecosystems.

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