Urbanisation in HICs: Opportunities and Challenges Flashcards

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What are High Income Countries (HICs)?

HICs are countries with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $12,535 or more. They are among the most urbanised countries in the world with high average incomes.

What stages of the urbanisation pathway do HICs typically fall into?

In HICs, urbanisation tends to fall within stages 3 to 5 of the urbanisation pathway, where the rate of urbanisation is slowing down and sometimes shifting towards counter-urbanisation.

What are some social opportunities and challenges from urban change in HICs?

Opportunities include greater ethnic diversity and more leisure facilities.

Challenges include increased poverty, inequality, and the risk of ethnic segregation.

What are some economic opportunities and challenges from urban change in HICs?

Opportunities include boosted tourism and increased spending from new cultural events.

Challenges include pressure on energy supplies and public services, and managing traffic and food supplies.

What are some environmental opportunities and challenges from urban change in HICs?

Opportunities include the development of public transport and green spaces.

Challenges include increased pollution, waste management issues and habitat destruction.

What is rural-to-urban migration?

Rural-to-urban migration is the movement of people from rural areas to urbanised areas, often seeking better opportunities and living conditions.

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