Food Security

Food security is the state of having a reliable supply of food that can feed a whole population. It measures the quantity of food available, its quality, and how easily people can access it.

You may see food stocked up in markets and outlets within your immediate surroundings, but that luxury is not available to everybody in the world. There are many people in the world with a low level of food security. This can result in food shortages, malnutrition, and even death.

With more people moving to cities, where fewer grow their own food, food security has become much more important.

Biological Factors Threatening Food Security

Current trends indicate that global food security is decreasing. Some of the challenges that contribute to this trend include:

  • Increasing Population
  • Changing diets
  • Pests and pathogens
  • Environmental change
  • Farming costs
  • Conflicts

Increasing Population

As access to healthcare improves and birth rates rise, the world’s population is growing. However, the available supply of food is not keeping pace with this population growth, leading to challenges in ensuring food security for all people.

Changing diets

In developed countries, dietary preferences are changing. People there expect to eat a diverse range of foods, many of which are imported from developing countries.

This can put pressure on the food sources of these countries, potentially leading to shortages and reduced food security.

Pests and pathogens

New pests and pathogens are consistently a threat to farms and crops, as they cause damage to or even destroy crops or livestock.

Environmental change

Environmental changes, such as global warming, can have a significant impact on food production. Unpredictable weather patterns, caused by changes in temperature and rainfall, can disrupt the growth of crops. This can lead to shortages and potentially even famine.

Farming costs

The prices of essential farming tools and equipment are rising. This makes it more difficult to produce enough food to meet the demand.


During periods of war, farming can be disrupted as the transportation of food and water may become compromised. Also, violent conflicts can damage land used for growing or storing food. This further reduces the availability of food.

Efforts to Improve Food Security.

As the threat to food security persists or grows, people and governments around the world are searching for solutions. Scientists and researchers are working towards finding more sustainable and efficient ways to produce food.

These efforts are essential to help countries meet the demands of their growing populations and address food shortages.