Bacterial Diseases

We often associate all bacteria with disease but they are not all harmful. In fact, a lot of bacteria actually help us. For example, trillions of bacteria live in our gut and help us to digest food. However, bacterial pathogens infect both plants and animals, which causes disease.

  • Unlike viral diseases, bacterial diseases can be treated or prevented with antibiotics


Salmonella is a type of bacteria that affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans.

SymptomsHow it spreadsTreatment and prevention
• Fever

• Abdominal cramps

• Vomiting

• Diarrhoea (caused by toxins they secrete)
Salmonella food poisoning is mainly caused by ingesting (eating) food that is not cooked properly

It can also be found in uncooked eggs or products that contain it
• Vaccinating poultry (e.g. chicken)

Keeping raw meat away from cooked food

• Washing hands and surfaces before and after handling raw meat

• Cooking food thoroughly


Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

SymptomsHow it spreadsTreatment and prevention
• Thick yellow or green discharge from the penis or the vagina

• Pain when urinating

• Can cause women to bleed between periods

• Some men and women are asymptomatic
Sexually transmitted diseases spread through direct sexual contact• By using a condom, which is a barrier method

• Can be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria, before they pass it on to another person – Many strains are resistant to penicillin, which is the most commonly used antibiotic