The Brain

The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord.

The brain is responsible for controlling complex behaviours and various physiological processes. It consists of billions of interconnected neurones, with different regions of the brain carrying out different functions.

Some of the main areas of the brain are:

  • The cerebrum – It is made up of two cerebral hemispheres. The thin, outer layer is called the cerebral cortex, which consists of four lobes: the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe, the parietal lobe and the temporal lobe. The cerebrum makes up most of the brain and is responsible for higher-level functions, such as conscious thought, memory, problem-solving and language.
  • The medulla oblongata – Responsible for unconscious processes including breathing and heart rate.
  • The cerebellum – Responsible for balance and coordinated movements such as riding a bike or avoiding obstacles.
  • The hypothalamus – Responsible for regulating body temperature and water balance.

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