Tone: The Author’s Attitude
Tone refers to the author’s attitude or feelings towards the subject matter or audience. It’s conveyed through word choice, sentence structure, and point of view. Here’s how to detect the tone:
- Word Choice – Pay attention to the adjectives and verbs the author uses. For example, in Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen uses ironic and witty language, reflecting a satirical tone.
- Sentence Structure – Short, snappy sentences might create a tense, blunt tone, while longer, flowing sentences might suggest a more contemplative or relaxed tone.
- Point of View – The author’s perspective can influence the tone. A first-person narrator might express personal emotions, while a third-person narrator might provide a more detached tone.
Mood: The Emotional Environment
Mood is the emotional feeling or atmosphere that a work of literature produces in a reader. You can recognise mood in a text by paying close attention to descriptions and imagery.
- Descriptions – Pay attention to how characters, settings and situations are described. For example, in Wuthering Heights, the bleak, isolated setting creates a gloomy mood.
- Imagery – Vivid descriptions that appeal to the senses can evoke specific emotions. For example, in Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, the descriptions of Hogwarts create a mood of wonder and magic.
Atmosphere: The Overall Feeling
Atmosphere is the overall feeling created by the setting, theme, tone and mood of a text. Authors use setting, imagery and descriptions to construct the atmosphere.
- Setting – The time and place where the story occurs can create a specific atmosphere. For example, in The Hound of the Baskervilles, the eerie, foggy moors contribute to a suspenseful atmosphere.
- Imagery and Descriptions – The author’s use of sensory details can create a vivid atmosphere. For example, in The Great Gatsby, the lavish descriptions of Gatsby’s parties create a rich, extravagant atmosphere.
Recognising Shifts in Tone, Mood and Atmosphere
Shifts in these elements can signal changes in the narrative. Here’s how to detect these shifts:
- Changes in Subject Matter or Events – A change in the events or subject matter can lead to a shift in tone, mood or atmosphere. For example, in To Kill a Mockingbird, the tone shifts from nostalgic and innocent to serious and sombre as the trial begins.
- Changes in Character Development – As characters evolve, the tone and mood can shift to reflect their changes. For example, in Lord of the Flies, the mood darkens as the boys descend into savagery.
Understanding tone, mood and atmosphere is like tuning into a radio frequency. You’re adjusting your senses to pick up on the subtle emotional signals the author is broadcasting.