Nouns are words that represent people, places, things or ideas. They play a necessary role in sentence construction.
- Common nouns refer to general people, places, things or ideas. For example, “dog,” “city” or “happiness.”
- Capitalise proper nouns, which represent specific names or titles. For example, “London,” “Sarah” or “Mount Everest.”
Countable and Uncountable Nouns:
- Countable nouns can be singular or plural and have a specific number. For example, “book” (singular) and “books” (plural).
- Uncountable nouns are not easily quantifiable and do not have a plural form. For example, “water,” “information” or “furniture.”
Verbs are action words that express an occurrence, state or existence. They are the backbone of sentences.
- Action verbs denote physical or mental actions. For example, “run,” “think” or “sing.”
- Use action verbs to convey movement, activities or processes.
- Linking verbs connect the subject of a sentence to a noun, pronoun, or adjective that describes or renames it. For example, “is,” “seem” or “become.”
- They do not show action but rather a state of being or a condition. For example, “Claire seems upset.”
Adjectives modify or describe nouns, pronouns, or other adjectives. They add detail and specificity to your writing.
- Descriptive adjectives provide characteristics or qualities about a noun. For example, “beautiful,” “happy” or “tall.”
- They help create vivid imagery and paint a clear picture in the reader’s mind.
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives:
- Comparative adjectives compare two or more things. They often end in “-er” or use “more” before the adjective. For example, “taller,” “more beautiful” or “smarter.”
- Superlative adjectives indicate the highest degree of comparison. They often end in “-est” or use “most” before the adjective. For example, “tallest,” “most beautiful” or “smartest.”
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs, providing information about time, place, manner or degree.
Adverbs of Time:
- Adverbs of time indicate when an action occurred. For example, “yesterday,” “soon” or “always.”
- They provide temporal context and help to establish a timeline.
Adverbs of Place:
- Adverbs of place indicate where an action occurred. For example, “here,” “everywhere” or “inside.”
- They add specificity and help the reader visualise the location.
Adverbs of Manner:
- Adverbs of manner describe how an action was performed. For example, “quickly,” “carefully” or “loudly.”
- They provide insights into the style or method of the action.
Other Parts of Speech
In addition to nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, there are other important parts of speech to consider:
- Pronouns – Pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition. For example, “he,” “she,” “it” or “they.” Use pronouns to refer back to a previously mentioned noun.
- Prepositions – Prepositions establish relationships between other words in a sentence, indicating location, direction, time or manner. For example, “in,” “on,” “at” or “through.” They help clarify the spatial or temporal context of an action or object.
- Conjunctions – Conjunctions join words, phrases or clauses. For example, “and,” “but,” “or” or “because.” They help connect ideas and show relationships between different parts of a sentence.
- Interjections – Interjections express strong emotions or sudden reactions. For example, “Wow!,” “Oops!” or “Yay!” They add expressiveness and reflect the speaker’s feelings.