Effects of Tectonic Hazards
Tectonic hazards have both primary and secondary effects.
Primary effects occur directly as a result of the earthquake or volcanic eruption. The impact is immediately observable and often physical in nature. For example:
- Buildings being destroyed
- People getting injured or killed
- Transportation routes being damaged
Secondary effects are the consequences that arise from the primary hazards. These effects can sometimes be more devastating than the primary ones, as they tend to have long-term socio-economic impacts. Some examples include:
- Economic slowdown due to the time required for rebuilding
- Difficulties in delivering aid to affected areas due to damaged transport routes
- Fires caused by broken gas lines and damaged electricity systems
- Disease outbreaks due to a lack of clean water
- Homelessness caused by damaged homes
- Increased food prices due to food shortages
Responses to Tectonic Hazards
Responses to tectonic hazards can be categorised as either immediate or long-term measures.
Immediate (short-term) responses are the initial actions taken after a tectonic event to ensure the safety and well-being of those affected. These include:
- Sending out rescue teams to search for survivors from the rubble and debris
- Providing immediate medical assistance to the injured
- Establishing temporary shelters for those who have been displaced from their homes
- Distributing emergency supplies, such as food and clean water, to meet the basic needs of those affected
- Recovering and providing respectful burial for bodies to prevent disease outbreaks and provide closure for families
- Issuing timely and accurate warnings, if possible, about potential aftershocks or secondary hazards.
- Carrying out evacuations of areas that are at high risk of further hazards, such as landslides or flooding.
Long-term responses focus on rebuilding and recovery to bring normal life back to those affected and prevent future hazards. These include:
- Rebuilding homes, businesses and other infrastructure that were destroyed or damaged
- Improving building regulations to better withstand future hazards
- Enhancing drills, evacuation plans and warning systems to ensure a quicker and more organised response to future hazards
- Repairing and upgrading essential utilities, including water, gas and electricity supplies
- Providing financial assistance and support to farms to allow them to recover and prevent food shortages
- Analysing data collected from the tectonic event to improve future predictions and risk assessments
- Improving government planning to make the population and infrastructure less vulnerable to tectonic hazards
- Reconstructing transport routes, including roads, bridges and railways, to increase access and connectivity