Active volcanoes are carefully monitored using a range of tools and techniques, including:
Earthquake monitoring utilises:
With the help of these monitoring tools, volcanic activity can now be predicted with higher accuracy. This allows authorities to establish evacuation and exclusion zones. However, despite these advancements, the precise timing of eruptions is still a significant challenge.
While the exact date, time, or location of earthquakes still cannot be predicted, scientists use statistical methods based on past seismic activity to calculate probabilities for future earthquakes. This allows local authorities to make more informed when preparing for potential earthquakes.
Protection measures for volcanic hazards include:
To provide protection against earthquakes, protection strategies involve:
Hazard mapping and risk assessment are crucial in identifying areas most prone to tectonic hazards. This information helps with making decisions on relocating people, restricting construction in vulnerable areas and focusing on important infrastructure like buildings and transportation routes.
Effective planning also involves the development of evacuation plans, education programs, emergency supplies stockpiling and training of emergency services.