When looking at static electricity, we can break it up into two words. ‘Static‘ means not moving and ‘electricity‘ is the transfer of energy by charged particles.
So, the definition of static electricity is the build-up of electrical charge within or on the surface of an insulated object. The charges are called ‘static’ because they remain in nearly a fixed position within or on the surface of the object until they are given a path to escape.
Everything around us is made up of atoms. An atom by itself is electrically neutral, which means that it has no overall electrical charge. However, atoms contain charged particles.
There are two types of charges:
Like charges repel and unlike charges attract.
Atoms contain positively charged protons in the nucleus, the centre of the atom. They also have negatively charged electrons surrounding the nucleus of the atom.
This means that when we look at positive and negative charges, we can look inside an atom and see positive charges as protons and negative charges as electrons. But keep in mind:
Atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons have no charge. just like this atom:
This atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons, which means that it is a neutral atom, so it has no overall charge.
For static electricity, we need a build-up of charge. When you rub two insulating materials together, electrons will transfer from one material to the other.
When two objects are rubbed together, electrons can be transferred from one uncharged object to another. The objects can then become electrically charged.
For example, a balloon and a jumper both have equal amounts of positive and negative charges.
When you rub the balloon on the jumper, electrons move from the jumper to the balloon.
The balloon now has more electrons and remember, electrons have a negative charge, which means that the balloon will have an overall negative charge. The Jumper lost electrons, so it will have an overall positive charge.
Although the balloon and jumper are equally charged, they are oppositely charged
Now remember, opposite charges attract. As the balloon has an overall negative charge and the jumper has an overall positive charge, the yellow balloon and the jumper will be attracted to each other. You can see this in the diagram below.
The neutral green balloon has an equal number of negative and positive charges, so it is not attracted to the jumper.
When the negatively charged balloon is placed next to a wall with a neutral charge, it repels the electrons in the wall and becomes attracted to the positively charged part of the wall.
You can try this experiment out for yourself here.
Lightning is caused by static electricity. This happens when there is an accumulation of positive and negative charges in the cloud. Electrons move from one area to another, which is the lightning part you can see.