Deformation is defined as a change in shape. When a force is applied to elastic materials or objects like springs, they can change shape. They can stretch, compress or bend, which can easily be seen with a spring.
An elastic object stretches when it is pulled.
An elastic object compresses when it is squashed.
When multiple forces act on an object like a spring, it can cause the ends to bend past each other.
Although, this bending concept also applies to less elastic objects.
There are two types of deformation:
1. Elastic deformation – The object returns to its original shape. For example, when you stretch a rubber band a little and release it, the band returns to its original shape.
2. Inelastic deformation – The object does not return to its original shape, it stays deformed.
The greater the force applied, the more an object deforms. For instance, the more you pull a rubber band, the further it stretches. However, after applying too much force, the object cannot return to its original shape. We call this point the elastic limit.