The Periodic Table

The elements in the periodic table combine in different ways to form everything around us. In the periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. This is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Each element is represented by a unique box that includes its name, atomic number, chemical symbol, and atomic mass.

Elements in the periodic table are organised into two categories: periods and groups.

Periods are the horizontal rows and there are seven in total. These rows represent the number of electron shells that an atom has. For example, elements in period 3 have 3 electron shells.

Groups are the vertical columns and are labelled 1-7, with a final group, which is called group 0. Groups show how many electrons an atom has in its outermost shell. For example, elements in group 2 have two electrons in their outermost shell.

  • Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties. This is because they have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell, which plays a significant role in how an element reacts.

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