Foundation + Higher – To determine the reacting volumes of a strong acid and a strong alkali through titration.
Higher – To determine the concentration of one of the solutions in mol/dm³ and g/dm³, using both the reacting volumes and known concentrations of other solutions.
1. Use the pipette and pipette filler to add 25 cm³ of sodium hydroxide to a clean conical flask.
2. Place the conical flask on a white tile, and insert the tip of the burette into the flask.
3. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator to the flask.
4. Fill the burette with hydrochloric acid and record the initial reading.
5. Slowly open the burette tap (stopcock) and add the acid to the flask, then swirl the flask to mix the solution.
6. Stop adding the acid when the endpoint is reached, which is when the colour permanently changes from pink to colourless. Then record the final burette reading.
7. Repeat steps 1–6 until you have concordant titles (results that are within 0.1 cm³ of each other), as this increases the accuracy of your results.
Record your results in an appropriate table, as shown below. Remember to record readings to two decimal places, ending in 0 or 5.
|Run||Final reading (cm³)||Initial reading (cm³)||Titre (cm³)|
The “Rough” titre is the first result obtained and is typically not as accurate as subsequent titres. It is also recommended to repeat the experiment until concordant titres are obtained, as shown in the table above.
For students doing higher papers, the mean titre can be used to calculate the concentration of the unknown solution using the known concentration of the other solution.