Glass Ceramics

Glass is a material known for its transparency, making it ideal for manufacturing windows. It also provides insulation against heat. However, glass is also brittle which can be a drawback.

A serene view of a white-framed window with condensation on the panes, overlooking a green garden. On the windowsill, there are two white vases with fresh green plants and delicate white flowers, flanking a silver teapot in the centre.

The majority of glass in use today is known as soda-lime glass. It is produced by combining sand (silicon oxide), sodium carbonate, and limestone. The mixture is then melted and allowed to cool and solidify, taking on any desired shape.

One problem with soda lime glass is its relatively low melting point, which limits its potential uses. It can’t be used for high-temperature applications.

Another type of glass, borosilicate glass, is made by mixing and heating sand with boron trioxide. Borosilicate glass has a higher melting point compared to soda-lime glass. This makes it useful for products that require exposure to heat, such as cookware and laboratory glassware.

Clay Ceramics

Clay ceramics are strong materials with a wide range of uses, including brick production and pottery. These ceramics are made by shaping wet clay and firing it in a furnace until it hardens, forming a durable material.

A potter, with hands covered in clay, meticulously shapes a beige vase on a spinning potter's wheel, capturing a moment of craftsmanship and artistry.

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