Transformations include rotation, reflection, translation and enlargement of shapes.
Shapes can be moved up or down and side to side. This is called translation.
Shape A has been translated into shape B. As you can see, shape A moved to the right 5 times and then up twice.
You can rotate a shape from its centre point. The centre of rotation can be inside the shape or outside
The diagram below shows different examples of shape rotation, with a range of centre of rotations.
This involves having an imaginary mirror line. The shape is reflected into the mirror, the distance from the object to the mirror is the same as the distance from the image to the mirror.
Reflections can also be done using tracing paper. On the tracing paper you draw the original shape. Draw the reflection line and turn the tracing paper in the direction you require then, re-draw the new reflected shape.