Extinction is the permanent loss of a species, and it can happen in two ways:

  • Naturally
  • Human activity

When a species is unable to adapt to changes in the environment, it can become extinct naturally. However, a species can also become extinct due to human activity, such as habitat destruction, overhunting, and pollution. Human activity is the leading cause of extinction and it is preventable.

Once a species becomes extinct, it is gone forever. Although some scientists are exploring the use of genetic engineering to bring extinct species back to life.

Causes of Extinction

There are several causes of extinction, including:

  • Catastrophic events – Such as natural disasters or meteor impacts
  • Introduction of new predators to an ecosystem
  • Spread of diseases
  • Changes in the physical environment – Such as climate change

Catastrophic events

A single catastrophic event (e.g. a meteorite colliding with Earth) can cause extinction. This could change the climate or the environment that a species lives in. If the species is unable to adapt to these changes, they may become extinct.

Introduction of new predators

The introduction of a new predator to an ecosystem can lead to the extinction of a species. This can happen when human activity changes an ecosystem and exposes a species to a new predator that hunts it, It can also happen when the new predator outcompetes another predator, leading to its extinction.

Spread of diseases

Sometimes, diseases can make species go extinct. This can happen naturally or as a result of human activity. For example, if people bring a disease to a place where it didn’t exist before, it can make the animals there sick and they might die.

Climate change

Human activity can have a significant impact on the climate through processes such as burning fossil fuels. When fossil fuels burn, it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which contributes to global warming.

Climate change can also lead to habitat loss, which is a cause of extinction. However, human activity, such as deforestation or hunting, also causes habitat loss.

Examples of Extinction

The dodo was a flightless bird that lived on the island of Mauritius. It was slow-moving and unafraid of humans, which made it vulnerable to hunting.

The extinction of the dodo was likely caused by a combination of factors, including hunting, disease, habitat loss, and the introduction of new predators like dogs.