Seeds and Fruit Formation

Seed formation is an important part of reproduction in seed plants.After seeds germinate and grow into plants, these plants may produce fruit. This is known as germination, the process by which seeds begin to grow into plants.

After the fertilisation of the flower, the ovules inside it develop into seeds. The ovary, which surrounds the ovules, becomes the fruit and may contain one or more seeds.

Structure of a Seed

Although seeds may look different from each other, they all have three main features:

  • Seed coat – A tough, protective outer layer.
  • Embryo – Young root and shoot that will grow to become an adult plant.
  • Food store – A source of energy for the seed as it germinates and grows.

The shoot will grow upwards, turning towards the light, whereas the root will grow downwards, towards the water and nutrients in the soil.

For a seed to germinate and grow into a plant, it needs optimal conditions, including sufficient water, oxygen, appropriate temperature and light.

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