Seeds and Fruit Formation

Seed formation is an important part of reproduction in seed plants. After seeds germinate and grow into plants, they may produce fruit. Germination is the process by which seeds begin to grow into plants.

After fertilisation, the ovules in the flower develop into seeds. The ovary, which surrounds the ovules, becomes the fruit and may contain one or more seeds.

Structure of a Seed

Although different seeds look different, they will all have three main features:

  • Seed coat – A tough, protective outer layer.
  • Embryo – Young root and shoot that will grow to become an adult plant.
  • Food store – A source of energy for the seed as it germinates and grows

The shoot will grow upwards, turning towards the light. Whereas the root will grow downwards, towards the water and nutrients in the soil.

To germinate and grow into a plant, a seed needs optimal amounts of water, oxygen, temperature, and light.