Writing Chemical Equations

In a chemical reaction, we always write in the reactants on the left hand side of the arrow and the products on the right hand side of the arrow.

  • Reactants ⮕ Products

For example, lets take a look at a chemical reaction between calcium and oxygen. The word equation is:

Calcium + Oxygen ⮕ Calcium oxide

This means…

  • Calcium and oxygen are our reactants
  • Calcium oxide is our product

We can then turn this word equation into a symbol equation.

Symbol Equations

Continuing from the example above, we must look at the periodic table to find the symbols.

Reactants

Looking at the periodic table, we can look at group 2 to find calcium:

  • Now we know the symbol for calcium is Ca

We now look at group 6 to find oxygen:

  • Now we know the symbol for oxygen is O

As we now have the reactant symbols, this means we can start writing our symbol equation.

Ca + O2

  • Keep in mind, oxygen atoms always come in pairs, that’s why we write the little 2 beside the oxygen symbol, as O2.

Products

It is not possible to find calcium oxide on the periodic table because it is a compound. In this case, calcium and oxygen have reacted together to form a compound. This means calcium oxide is made up of calcium and oxygen.

In order to know what symbols to write calcium oxide, it is helpful to remember the endings of chemical formulae.

Word Ending Symbol Ending
Hydroxide OH
Sulphate SO4
Carbonate CO3
Nitrate NO3
Ends with ide
E.g. oxide, fluoride, bromide
Ends with a single element symbol
E.g. O, F, Br

Let’s look at some examples, which will help you write chemical formulas:

Compound Chemical Formula
Potassium hydroxide KOH
Sodium sulphate K2SO4
Calcium carbonate CaCO3
Sodium nitrate NaNO3
Calcium oxide CaO

`If we go back to our earlier example, we now look at the word equation:

Calcium + Oxygen Calcium oxide

  • We can see that the product ends in ide (oxide) – Which means the symbol ends with a single element, in this case O
  • This means the chemical formula for the product (magnesium oxide) is CaO

Therefore, the symbol equation is:

Ca + O2 ⮕ CaO

However, the equation is not yet complete, we need to balance it.