Understanding Pigeon English

Stephen Kelman’s Pigeon English follows 11-year-old Harrison Opoku, also known as Harri. He moves to a London estate with his mother and older sister from Ghana, where they face gang violence, racism and poverty. Harri investigates a local boy’s murder outside a fried chicken shop, only to find out the killers are part of a…

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The Earth’s Natural Resources

Humans use a lot of the Earth’s natural resources. For example, we use these resources to provide: Warmth Shelter Food Transport These resources can be divided into living and non-living resources. Living resources include plants and animals, whereas non-living resources include fossil fuels, water, air and minerals. It is important for chemists to find more…

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SI Units

Measurement is the backbone of scientific understanding. Every physical quantity has a corresponding unit that provides context and scale to what we observe. Take distance. We can measure it in kilometres or miles, which are two related but different units of measurement. To accurately represent the scale of the distance, it’s essential that you specify…

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Key Discoveries in Chemistry

Antoine Lavoisier is recognised as the father of modern chemistry. He thought that the existence of atoms was philosophically impossible. In 1803, the scientist John Dalton proposed “the new atomic theory”, stating that all matter is made up of small indivisible particles called atoms, which he explained through the following statements: We now know that…

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Understanding Macbeth

Macbeth is a five-act tragedy written by the British playwright William Shakespeare in 1606. The play centres on the Scottish general Macbeth, originally depicted as a noble warrior loyal to King Duncan. Macbeth and his friend Banquo meet three cryptic witches who make three prophecies: Macbeth, encouraged by these predictions and his ambitious wife, Lady…

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Identifying Themes and Ideas

What is a Theme? A theme is a central topic or subject that recurs throughout a text. It represents the underlying message or the main idea that the author intends to convey. Themes often explore universal concepts, such as love, friendship, power, justice or loss. They provide a lens through which readers can view and…

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Types of Natural Hazards

Natural hazards are events caused by environmental processes and have the potential to cause harm to the environment, people, or the economy. These hazards occur without the influence of humans, but their impact is significant when they interact with human activities. Understanding the different types of natural hazards is important for assessing risk and implementing…

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Elements

What Are Elements? Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down any further by chemical reactions. For example, oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) are both types of elements. Whereas compounds, such as water (H2O), are made of two or more elements combined. An element is made of only one type of atom, which contains…

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